The procedures of surgery are commonly split into categories depending on various factors like urgency, type of procedure, the degree of invasiveness, and special instrumentation.
- Based on urgency- Elective Surgery is done to correct a non-life-threatening condition and is carried out only at the patient’s request. A semi-elective surgery is a surgery which is can be postponed for a short period of time but is specially done to remove or repair a permanent disability in the human body. Emergency surgery is done when a patient is fighting for life and death and immediate attention is required to save a life or any other body part or prevent functional inability.
- Based on purpose- Exploratory Surgery is done to make sure or rather confirm a diagnosis. Therapeutic Surgery is done to a previously diagnosed condition. Cosmetic Surgery is done mainly to improve the appearance of an otherwise normal looking structure.
- Based on the type of procedure- Amputation involves cutting off a body part usually limbs or digit. Replantation involves the process of reattachment of a severed body part. When the process included total reconstructing the injured, mutilated or deformed part it is known as Reconstructive surgery. When there is a replacement of an organ from one living body to another living body is known as Transplant surgery.
- Based on the body part- When the process is performed on an organ system or structure it is generally classified by the organ, organ system or by the tissues involved, for example, cardiac surgery is performed on the heart.
- Based on the degree of invasiveness of surgical procedures- When there is smaller or minimal incision(s) to insert instruments with a human body, say within the cavity or the structure it is known as minimally invasive surgery, for example, laparoscopy or angioplasty. In contrast to that, an open surgical procedure requires the surgeon to make a large incision to access the area of interest which is known as the laparotomy.
- Based on equipment used- Modern technology and advancements have allowed lasers for cutting tissue instead of a scalpel or similar instruments and the process is known as Laser surgery. Using an operating microscope to see small structures is known as a Microsurgery. Robotic surgery does make use of a surgically trained robot t control the instrumentation under the guidance and direction of the surgeon.